# 4.4.1. HOLE analysis — MDAnalysis.analysis.hole2¶

Author: Lily Wang 2020 GNU Public License v3

New in version 1.0.0.

This module provides an updated interface for the HOLE suite of tools [Smart1993] [Smart1996] to analyse an ion channel pore or transporter pathway [Stelzl2014] as a function of time or arbitrary order parameters. It replaces MDAnalysis.analysis.hole.

HOLE must be installed separately and can be obtained in binary form from http://www.holeprogram.org/ or as source from https://github.com/osmart/hole2. (HOLE is open source and available under the Apache v2.0 license.)

## 4.4.1.1. Module¶

### 4.4.1.1.1. HOLE Analysis — MDAnalysis.analysis.hole2.hole¶

Author: Lily Wang 2020 GNU Public License v3

New in version 1.0.0.

This module contains the tools to interface with HOLE [Smart1993] [Smart1996] to analyse an ion channel pore or transporter pathway [Stelzl2014] .

#### 4.4.1.1.1.1. Using HOLE on a PDB file¶

Use the :func:hole function to run HOLE on a single PDB file. For example, the code below runs the HOLE program installed at ‘~/hole2/exe/hole’

from MDAnalysis.tests.datafiles import PDB_HOLE
from MDAnalysis.analysis import hole2
profiles = hole2.hole(PDB_HOLE, executable='~/hole2/exe/hole')
# to create a VMD surface of the pore
hole2.create_vmd_surface(filename='hole.vmd')


profiles is a dictionary of HOLE profiles, indexed by the frame number. If only a PDB file is passed to the function, there will only be one profile at frame 0. You can visualise the pore by loading your PDB file into VMD, and in Extensions > Tk Console, type:

source hole.vmd


You can also pass a DCD trajectory with the same atoms in the same order as your PDB file with the dcd keyword argument. In that case, profiles will contain multiple HOLE profiles, indexed by frame.

The HOLE program will create some output files:

• an output file (default name: hole.out)
• an sphpdb file (default name: hole.sph)
• a file of van der Waals’ radii (if not specified with vdwradii_file. Default name: simple2.rad)
• a symlink of your PDB or DCD files (if the original name is too long)
• the input text (if you specify infile)

By default (keep_files=True), these files are kept. If you would like to delete the files after the function is wrong, set keep_files=False. Keep in mind that if you delete the sphpdb file, you cannot then create a VMD surface.

#### 4.4.1.1.1.2. Using HOLE on a trajectory¶

You can also run HOLE on a trajectory through the HoleAnalysis class. This behaves similarly to the hole function, although arguments such as cpoint and cvect become runtime arguments for the run() function.

The class can be set-up and run like a normal MDAnalysis analysis class:

import MDAnalysis as mda
from MDAnalysis.tests.datafiles import MULTIPDB_HOLE
from MDAnalysis.analysis import hole2

ha = hole2.HoleAnalysis(u, executable='~/hole2/exe/hole') as h2:
ha.run()
ha.create_vmd_surface(filename='hole.vmd')


The VMD surface created by the class updates the pore for each frame of the trajectory. Use it as normal by loading your trajectory in VMD and sourcing the file in the Tk Console.

You can access the actual profiles generated in the results attribute:

print(ha.results.profiles)


Again, HOLE writes out files for each frame. If you would like to delete these files after the analysis, you can call delete_temporary_files():

ha.delete_temporary_files()


Alternatively, you can use HoleAnalysis as a context manager that deletes temporary files when you are finished with the context manager:

import MDAnalysis as mda
from MDAnalysis.tests.datafiles import MULTIPDB_HOLE
from MDAnalysis.analysis import hole2

with hole2.HoleAnalysis(u, executable='~/hole2/exe/hole') as h2:
h2.run()
h2.create_vmd_surface()


#### 4.4.1.1.1.3. Functions and classes¶

MDAnalysis.analysis.hole2.hole.hole(pdbfile, infile_text=None, infile=None, outfile='hole.out', sphpdb_file='hole.sph', vdwradii_file=None, executable='hole', tmpdir='.', sample=0.2, end_radius=22.0, cpoint=None, cvect=None, random_seed=None, ignore_residues=['SOL', 'WAT', 'TIP', 'HOH', 'K ', 'NA ', 'CL '], output_level=0, dcd=None, dcd_iniskip=0, dcd_step=1, keep_files=True)[source]

Run hole on a single frame or a DCD trajectory.

hole is part of the HOLE suite of programs. It is used to analyze channels and cavities in proteins, especially ion channels.

Only a subset of all HOLE control parameters is supported and can be set with keyword arguments.

Parameters: pdbfile (str) – The filename is used as input for HOLE in the “COORD” card of the input file. It specifies the name of a PDB coordinate file to be used. This must be in Brookhaven protein databank format or something closely approximating this. Both ATOM and HETATM records are read. infile_text (str, optional) – HOLE input text or template. If set to None, the function will create the input text from the other parameters. infile (str, optional) – File to write the HOLE input text for later inspection. If set to None, the input text is not written out. outfile (str, optional) – file name of the file collecting HOLE’s output (which can be parsed using collect_hole(outfile)(). sphpdb_file (str, optional) – path to the HOLE sph file, a PDB-like file containing the coordinates of the pore centers. The coordinates are set to the sphere centres and the occupancies are the sphere radii. All centres are assigned the atom name QSS and residue name SPH and the residue number is set to the storage number of the centre. In VMD, sph objects are best displayed as “Points”. Displaying .sph objects rather than rendered or dot surfaces can be useful to analyze the distance of particular atoms from the sphere-centre line. .sph files can be used to produce molecular graphical output from a hole run, by using the sph_process program to read the .sph file. vdwradii_file (str, optional) – path to the file specifying van der Waals radii for each atom. If set to None, then a set of default radii, SIMPLE2_RAD, is used (an extension of simple.rad from the HOLE distribution). executable (str, optional) – Path to the hole executable. (e.g. ~/hole2/exe/hole). If hole is found on the PATH, then the bare executable name is sufficient. tmpdir (str, optional) – The temporary directory that files can be symlinked to, to shorten the path name. HOLE can only read filenames up to a certain length. sample (float, optional) – distance of sample points in Å. Specifies the distance between the planes used in the HOLE procedure. The default value should be reasonable for most purposes. However, if you wish to visualize a very tight constriction then specify a smaller value. This value determines how many points in the pore profile are calculated. end_radius (float, optional) – Radius in Å, which is considered to be the end of the pore. This keyword can be used to specify the radius above which the program regards a result as indicating that the end of the pore has been reached. This may need to be increased for large channels, or reduced for small channels. cpoint (array_like, 'center_of_geometry' or None, optional) – coordinates of a point inside the pore, e.g. [12.3, 0.7, 18.55]. If set to None (the default) then HOLE’s own search algorithm is used. cpoint specifies a point which lies within the channel. For simple channels (e.g. gramicidin), results do not show great sensitivity to the exact point taken. An easy way to produce an initial point is to use molecular graphics to find two atoms which lie either side of the pore and to average their coordinates. Or if the channel structure contains water molecules or counter ions then take the coordinates of one of these (and use the ignore_residues keyword to ignore them in the pore radius calculation). If this card is not specified, then HOLE (from version 2.2) attempts to guess where the channel will be. The procedure assumes the channel is reasonably symmetric. The initial guess on cpoint will be the centroid of all alpha carbon atoms (name ‘CA’ in pdb file). This is then refined by a crude grid search up to 5 Å from the original position. This procedure works most of the time but is far from infallible — results should be carefully checked (with molecular graphics) if it is used. cvect (array_like, optional) – Search direction, should be parallel to the pore axis, e.g. [0,0,1] for the z-axis. If this keyword is None (the default), then HOLE attempts to guess where the channel will be. The procedure assumes that the channel is reasonably symmetric. The guess will be either along the X axis (1,0,0), Y axis (0,1,0) or Z axis (0,0,1). If the structure is not aligned on one of these axis the results will clearly be approximate. If a guess is used then results should be carefully checked. random_seed (int, optional) – integer number to start the random number generator. By default, hole will use the time of the day. For reproducible runs (e.g., for testing) set random_seed to an integer. ignore_residues (array_like, optional) – sequence of three-letter residues that are not taken into account during the calculation; wildcards are not supported. Note that all residues must have 3 letters. Pad with space on the right-hand side if necessary. output_level (int, optional) – Determines the output of output in the outfile. For automated processing, this must be < 3. 0: Full text output, 1: All text output given except “run in progress” (i.e., detailed contemporary description of what HOLE is doing). 2: Ditto plus no graph type output - only leaving minimum radius and conductance calculations. 3: All text output other than input card mirroring and error messages turned off. dcd (str, optional) – File name of CHARMM-style DCD trajectory (must be supplied together with a matching PDB file filename) and then HOLE runs its analysis on each frame. HOLE can not read DCD trajectories written by MDAnalysis, which are NAMD-style (see Notes). Note that structural parameters determined for each individual structure are written in a tagged format so that it is possible to extract the information from the text output file using a grep command. The reading of the file can be controlled by the dcd_step keyword and/or setting dcd_iniskip to the number of frames to be skipped initially. dcd_step (int, optional) – step size for going through the trajectory (skips dcd_step-1 frames). keep_files (bool, optional) – Whether to keep the HOLE output files and possible temporary symlinks after running the function. A dictionary of numpy.recarrays, indexed by frame. dict

Notes

• HOLE is very picky and does not read all DCD-like formats [1]. If in doubt, look into the outfile for error diagnostics.

New in version 1.0.

class MDAnalysis.analysis.hole2.hole.HoleAnalysis(universe, select='protein', verbose=False, ignore_residues=['SOL', 'WAT', 'TIP', 'HOH', 'K ', 'NA ', 'CL '], vdwradii_file=None, executable='hole', sos_triangle='sos_triangle', sph_process='sph_process', tmpdir='.', cpoint=None, cvect=None, sample=0.2, end_radius=22, output_level=0, prefix=None, write_input_files=False)[source]

Run hole on a trajectory.

hole is part of the HOLE suite of programs. It is used to analyze channels and cavities in proteins, especially ion channels.

Only a subset of all HOLE control parameters is supported and can be set with keyword arguments.

This class creates temporary PDB files for each frame and runs HOLE on the frame. It can be used normally, or as a context manager. If used as a context manager, the class will try to delete any temporary files created by HOLE, e.g. sphpdb files and logfiles.

with hole2.HoleAnalysis(u, executable='~/hole2/exe/hole') as h2:
h2.run()
h2.create_vmd_surface()

Parameters: universe (Universe or AtomGroup) – The Universe or AtomGroup to apply the analysis to. select (string, optional) – The selection string to create an atom selection that the HOLE analysis is applied to. vdwradii_file (str, optional) – path to the file specifying van der Waals radii for each atom. If set to None, then a set of default radii, SIMPLE2_RAD, is used (an extension of simple.rad from the HOLE distribution). executable (str, optional) – Path to the hole executable. (e.g. ~/hole2/exe/hole). If hole is found on the PATH, then the bare executable name is sufficient. tmpdir (str, optional) – The temporary directory that files can be symlinked to, to shorten the path name. HOLE can only read filenames up to a certain length. cpoint (array_like, 'center_of_geometry' or None, optional) – coordinates of a point inside the pore, e.g. [12.3, 0.7, 18.55]. If set to None (the default) then HOLE’s own search algorithm is used. cpoint specifies a point which lies within the channel. For simple channels (e.g. gramicidin), results do not show great sensitivity to the exact point taken. An easy way to produce an initial point is to use molecular graphics to find two atoms which lie either side of the pore and to average their coordinates. Or if the channel structure contains water molecules or counter ions then take the coordinates of one of these (and use the ignore_residues keyword to ignore them in the pore radius calculation). If this card is not specified, then HOLE (from version 2.2) attempts to guess where the channel will be. The procedure assumes the channel is reasonably symmetric. The initial guess on cpoint will be the centroid of all alpha carbon atoms (name ‘CA’ in pdb file). This is then refined by a crude grid search up to 5 Å from the original position. This procedure works most of the time but is far from infallible — results should be carefully checked (with molecular graphics) if it is used. cvect (array_like, optional) – Search direction, should be parallel to the pore axis, e.g. [0,0,1] for the z-axis. If this keyword is None (the default), then HOLE attempts to guess where the channel will be. The procedure assumes that the channel is reasonably symmetric. The guess will be either along the X axis (1,0,0), Y axis (0,1,0) or Z axis (0,0,1). If the structure is not aligned on one of these axis the results will clearly be approximate. If a guess is used then results should be carefully checked. sample (float, optional) – distance of sample points in Å. Specifies the distance between the planes used in the HOLE procedure. The default value should be reasonable for most purposes. However, if you wish to visualize a very tight constriction then specify a smaller value. This value determines how many points in the pore profile are calculated. end_radius (float, optional) – Radius in Å, which is considered to be the end of the pore. This keyword can be used to specify the radius above which the program regards a result as indicating that the end of the pore has been reached. This may need to be increased for large channels, or reduced for small channels. output_level (int, optional) – Determines the output of output in the outfile. For automated processing, this must be < 3. 0: Full text output, 1: All text output given except “run in progress” (i.e., detailed contemporary description of what HOLE is doing). 2: Ditto plus no graph type output - only leaving minimum radius and conductance calculations. 3: All text output other than input card mirroring and error messages turned off. ignore_residues (array_like, optional) – sequence of three-letter residues that are not taken into account during the calculation; wildcards are not supported. Note that all residues must have 3 letters. Pad with space on the right-hand side if necessary. prefix (str, optional) – Prefix for HOLE output files. write_input_files (bool, optional) – Whether to write out the input HOLE text as files. Files are called hole.inp.
results.sphpdbs

Array of sphpdb filenames

New in version 2.0.0.

Type: numpy.ndarray
results.outfiles

Arrau of output filenames

New in version 2.0.0.

Type: numpy.ndarray
results.profiles

Profiles generated by HOLE2. A dictionary of numpy.recarrays, indexed by frame.

New in version 2.0.0.

Type: dict
sphpdbs

Alias of results.sphpdbs

Deprecated since version 2.0.0: This will be removed in MDAnalysis 3.0.0. Please use results.sphpdbs instead.

Type: numpy.ndarray
outfiles

Alias of results.outfiles

Deprecated since version 2.0.0: This will be removed in MDAnalysis 3.0.0. Please use results.outfiles instead.

Type: numpy.ndarray
profiles

Alias of results.profiles

Deprecated since version 2.0.0: This will be removed in MDAnalysis 3.0.0. Please use results.profiles instead.

Type: dict
.. versionadded:: 1.0
.. versionchanged:: 2.0.0

sphpdbs, outfiles and profiles  are now stored in a :class:MDAnalysis.analysis.base.Results instance.

bin_radii(frames=None, bins=100, range=None)[source]

Collects the pore radii into bins by reaction coordinate.

Parameters: frames (int or iterable of ints, optional) – Profiles to include by frame. If None, includes all frames. bins (int or iterable of edges, optional) – If bins is an int, it defines the number of equal-width bins in the given range. If bins is a sequence, it defines a monotonically increasing array of bin edges, including the rightmost edge, allowing for non-uniform bin widths. range ((float, float), optional) – The lower and upper range of the bins. If not provided, range is simply (a.min(), a.max()), where a is the array of reaction coordinates. Values outside the range are ignored. The first element of the range must be less than or equal to the second. list of arrays of floats – List of radii present in each bin array of (float, float) – Edges of each bin
create_vmd_surface(filename='hole.vmd', dot_density=15, no_water_color='red', one_water_color='green', double_water_color='blue')[source]

Process HOLE output to create a smooth pore surface suitable for VMD.

Takes the sphpdb file for each frame and feeds it to sph_process and sos_triangle as described under Visualization of HOLE results.

Load the output file filename into VMD in Extensions > Tk Console

source hole.vmd


The level of detail is determined by dot_density. The surface will be colored by no_water_color, one_water_color, and double_water_color. You can change these in the Tk Console:

set no_water_color blue

Parameters: filename (str, optional) – file to write the pore surfaces to. dot_density (int, optional) – density of facets for generating a 3D pore representation. The number controls the density of dots that will be used. A sphere of dots is placed on each centre determined in the Monte Carlo procedure. The actual number of dots written is controlled by dot_density and the sample level of the original analysis. dot_density should be set between 5 (few dots per sphere) and 35 (many dots per sphere). no_water_color (str, optional) – Color of the surface where the pore radius is too tight for a water molecule. one_water_color (str, optional) – Color of the surface where the pore can fit one water molecule. double_water_color (str, optional) – Color of the surface where the radius is at least double the minimum radius for one water molecule. filename with the pore surfaces. str
delete_temporary_files()[source]

Delete temporary files

gather(frames=None, flat=False)[source]

Gather the fields of each profile recarray together.

Parameters: frames (int or iterable of ints, optional) – Profiles to include by frame. If None, includes all frames. flat (bool, optional) – Whether to flatten the list of field arrays into a single array. dictionary of fields dict
guess_cpoint()[source]

Guess a point inside the pore.

This method simply uses the center of geometry of the selection as a guess.

Returns: center of geometry of selected AtomGroup float
histogram_radii(aggregator=<function mean>, frames=None, bins=100, range=None)[source]

Histograms the pore radii into bins by reaction coordinate, aggregate the radii with an aggregator function, and returns the aggregated radii and bin edges.

Parameters: aggregator (callable, optional) – this function must take an iterable of floats and return a single value. frames (int or iterable of ints, optional) – Profiles to include by frame. If None, includes all frames. bins (int or iterable of edges, optional) – If bins is an int, it defines the number of equal-width bins in the given range. If bins is a sequence, it defines a monotonically increasing array of bin edges, including the rightmost edge, allowing for non-uniform bin widths. range ((float, float), optional) – The lower and upper range of the bins. If not provided, range is simply (a.min(), a.max()), where a is the array of reaction coordinates. Values outside the range are ignored. The first element of the range must be less than or equal to the second. array of floats – histogrammed, aggregate value of radii array of (float, float) – Edges of each bin
min_radius()[source]

Return the minimum radius over all profiles as a function of q

over_order_parameters(order_parameters, frames=None)[source]

Get HOLE profiles sorted over order parameters order_parameters.

Parameters: order_parameters (array-like or string) – Sequence or text file containing order parameters (float numbers) corresponding to the frames in the trajectory. Must be same length as trajectory. frames (array-like, optional) – Selected frames to return. If None, returns all of them. sorted dictionary of {order_parameter:profile} collections.OrderedDict
plot(frames=None, color=None, cmap='viridis', linestyle='-', y_shift=0.0, label=True, ax=None, legend_loc='best', **kwargs)[source]

Plot HOLE profiles $$R(\zeta)$$ in a 1D graph.

Lines are colored according to the specified color or drawn from the color map cmap. One line is plotted for each trajectory frame.

Parameters: frames (array-like, optional) – Frames to plot. If None, plots all of them. color (str or array-like, optional) – Color or colors for the plot. If None, colors are drawn from cmap. cmap (str, optional) – color map to make colors for the plot if color is not given. Names should be from the matplotlib.pyplot.cm module. linestyle (str or array-like, optional) – Line style for the plot. y_shift (float, optional) – displace each $$R(\zeta)$$ profile by y_shift in the $$y$$-direction for clearer visualization. label (bool or string, optional) – If False then no legend is displayed. ax (matplotlib.axes.Axes) – If no ax is supplied or set to None then the plot will be added to the current active axes. legend_loc (str, optional) – Location of the legend. kwargs (**kwargs) – All other kwargs are passed to matplotlib.pyplot.plot(). ax – Axes with the plot, either ax or the current axes. Axes
plot3D(frames=None, color=None, cmap='viridis', linestyle='-', ax=None, r_max=None, ylabel='Frames', **kwargs)[source]

Stacked 3D graph of profiles $$R(\zeta)$$.

Lines are colored according to the specified color or drawn from the color map cmap. One line is plotted for each trajectory frame.

Parameters: frames (array-like, optional) – Frames to plot. If None, plots all of them. color (str or array-like, optional) – Color or colors for the plot. If None, colors are drawn from cmap. cmap (str, optional) – color map to make colors for the plot if color is not given. Names should be from the matplotlib.pyplot.cm module. linestyle (str or array-like, optional) – Line style for the plot. r_max (float, optional) – only display radii up to r_max. If None, all radii are plotted. ax (matplotlib.axes.Axes) – If no ax is supplied or set to None then the plot will be added to the current active axes. ylabel (str, optional) – Y-axis label. **kwargs – All other kwargs are passed to matplotlib.pyplot.plot(). ax – Axes with the plot, either ax or the current axes. Axes3D
plot3D_order_parameters(order_parameters, frames=None, color=None, cmap='viridis', linestyle='-', ax=None, r_max=None, ylabel='Order parameter', **kwargs)[source]

Plot HOLE radii over order parameters as a 3D graph.

Lines are colored according to the specified color or drawn from the color map cmap. One line is plotted for each trajectory frame.

Parameters: order_parameters (array-like or string) – Sequence or text file containing order parameters(float numbers) corresponding to the frames in the trajectory. Must be same length as trajectory. frames (array-like, optional) – Frames to plot. If None, plots all of them. color (str or array-like, optional) – Color or colors for the plot. If None, colors are drawn from cmap. cmap (str, optional) – color map to make colors for the plot if color is not given. Names should be from the matplotlib.pyplot.cm module. linestyle (str or array-like, optional) – Line style for the plot. ax (: class: matplotlib.axes.Axes) – If no ax is supplied or set to None then the plot will be added to the current active axes. r_max (float, optional) – only display radii up to r_max. If None, all radii are plotted. ylabel (str, optional) – Y-axis label. **kwargs – All other kwargs are passed to: func: matplotlib.pyplot.plot. ax – Axes with the plot, either ax or the current axes. : class: ~mpl_toolkits.mplot3d.Axes3D
plot_mean_profile(bins=100, range=None, frames=None, color='blue', linestyle='-', ax=None, xlabel='Frame', fill_alpha=0.3, n_std=1, legend=True, legend_loc='best', **kwargs)[source]

Collects the pore radii into bins by reaction coordinate.

Parameters: frames (int or iterable of ints, optional) – Profiles to include by frame. If None, includes all frames. bins (int or iterable of edges, optional) – If bins is an int, it defines the number of equal-width bins in the given range. If bins is a sequence, it defines a monotonically increasing array of bin edges, including the rightmost edge, allowing for non-uniform bin widths. range ((float, float), optional) – The lower and upper range of the bins. If not provided, range is simply (a.min(), a.max()), where a is the array of reaction coordinates. Values outside the range are ignored. The first element of the range must be less than or equal to the second. color (str or array-like, optional) – Color for the plot. linestyle (str or array-like, optional) – Line style for the plot. ax (matplotlib.axes.Axes) – If no ax is supplied or set to None then the plot will be added to the current active axes. xlabel (str, optional) – X-axis label. fill_alpha (float, optional) – Opacity of filled standard deviation area n_std (int, optional) – Number of standard deviations from the mean to fill between. legend (bool, optional) – Whether to plot a legend. legend_loc (str, optional) – Location of legend. **kwargs – All other kwargs are passed to matplotlib.pyplot.plot(). ax – Axes with the plot, either ax or the current axes. Axes
plot_order_parameters(order_parameters, aggregator=<built-in function min>, frames=None, color='blue', linestyle='-', ax=None, ylabel='Minimum HOLE pore radius $r$ ($\\AA$)', xlabel='Order parameter', **kwargs)[source]

Plot HOLE radii over order parameters. This function needs an aggregator function to reduce the radius array to a single value, e.g. min, max, or np.mean.

Parameters: order_parameters (array-like or string) – Sequence or text file containing order parameters (float numbers) corresponding to the frames in the trajectory. Must be same length as trajectory. aggregator (callable, optional) – Function applied to the radius array of each profile to reduce it to one representative value. frames (array-like, optional) – Frames to plot. If None, plots all of them. color (str or array-like, optional) – Color for the plot. linestyle (str or array-like, optional) – Line style for the plot. ax (matplotlib.axes.Axes) – If no ax is supplied or set to None then the plot will be added to the current active axes. xlabel (str, optional) – X-axis label. ylabel (str, optional) – Y-axis label. **kwargs – All other kwargs are passed to matplotlib.pyplot.plot(). ax – Axes with the plot, either ax or the current axes. Axes
run(start=None, stop=None, step=None, verbose=None, random_seed=None)[source]

Perform the calculation

Parameters: start (int, optional) – start frame of analysis stop (int, optional) – stop frame of analysis step (int, optional) – number of frames to skip between each analysed frame verbose (bool, optional) – Turn on verbosity random_seed (int, optional) – integer number to start the random number generator. By default, hole will use the time of the day. For reproducible runs (e.g., for testing) set random_seed to an integer.

References

 [Smart1993] (1, 2) O.S. Smart, J.M. Goodfellow and B.A. Wallace. The Pore Dimensions of Gramicidin A. Biophysical Journal 65:2455-2460, 1993. DOI: 10.1016/S0006-3495(93)81293-1
 [Smart1996] (1, 2) O.S. Smart, J.G. Neduvelil, X. Wang, B.A. Wallace, and M.S.P. Sansom. HOLE: A program for the analysis of the pore dimensions of ion channel structural models. J.Mol.Graph., 14:354–360, 1996. DOI: 10.1016/S0263-7855(97)00009-X URL http://www.holeprogram.org/
 [Stelzl2014] (1, 2) L. S. Stelzl, P. W. Fowler, M. S. P. Sansom, and O. Beckstein. Flexible gates generate occluded intermediates in the transport cycle of LacY. J Mol Biol, 426:735–751, 2014. DOI: 10.1016/j.jmb.2013.10.024
 [1] (1, 2) PDB files are not the only files that hole can read. In principle, it is also able to read CHARMM DCD trajectories and generate a hole profile for each frame. However, native support for DCD in hole is patchy and not every DCD is recognized. In particular, At the moment, DCDs generated with MDAnalysis are not accepted by HOLE. To overcome this PDB / DCD limitation, use HoleAnalysis which creates temporary PDB files for each frame of a Universe or AtomGroup and runs :func:hole on each of them.
class MDAnalysis.analysis.hole2.hole.HoleAnalysis(universe, select='protein', verbose=False, ignore_residues=['SOL', 'WAT', 'TIP', 'HOH', 'K ', 'NA ', 'CL '], vdwradii_file=None, executable='hole', sos_triangle='sos_triangle', sph_process='sph_process', tmpdir='.', cpoint=None, cvect=None, sample=0.2, end_radius=22, output_level=0, prefix=None, write_input_files=False)[source]

Run hole on a trajectory.

hole is part of the HOLE suite of programs. It is used to analyze channels and cavities in proteins, especially ion channels.

Only a subset of all HOLE control parameters is supported and can be set with keyword arguments.

This class creates temporary PDB files for each frame and runs HOLE on the frame. It can be used normally, or as a context manager. If used as a context manager, the class will try to delete any temporary files created by HOLE, e.g. sphpdb files and logfiles.

with hole2.HoleAnalysis(u, executable='~/hole2/exe/hole') as h2:
h2.run()
h2.create_vmd_surface()

Parameters: universe (Universe or AtomGroup) – The Universe or AtomGroup to apply the analysis to. select (string, optional) – The selection string to create an atom selection that the HOLE analysis is applied to. vdwradii_file (str, optional) – path to the file specifying van der Waals radii for each atom. If set to None, then a set of default radii, SIMPLE2_RAD, is used (an extension of simple.rad from the HOLE distribution). executable (str, optional) – Path to the hole executable. (e.g. ~/hole2/exe/hole). If hole is found on the PATH, then the bare executable name is sufficient. tmpdir (str, optional) – The temporary directory that files can be symlinked to, to shorten the path name. HOLE can only read filenames up to a certain length. cpoint (array_like, 'center_of_geometry' or None, optional) – coordinates of a point inside the pore, e.g. [12.3, 0.7, 18.55]. If set to None (the default) then HOLE’s own search algorithm is used. cpoint specifies a point which lies within the channel. For simple channels (e.g. gramicidin), results do not show great sensitivity to the exact point taken. An easy way to produce an initial point is to use molecular graphics to find two atoms which lie either side of the pore and to average their coordinates. Or if the channel structure contains water molecules or counter ions then take the coordinates of one of these (and use the ignore_residues keyword to ignore them in the pore radius calculation). If this card is not specified, then HOLE (from version 2.2) attempts to guess where the channel will be. The procedure assumes the channel is reasonably symmetric. The initial guess on cpoint will be the centroid of all alpha carbon atoms (name ‘CA’ in pdb file). This is then refined by a crude grid search up to 5 Å from the original position. This procedure works most of the time but is far from infallible — results should be carefully checked (with molecular graphics) if it is used. cvect (array_like, optional) – Search direction, should be parallel to the pore axis, e.g. [0,0,1] for the z-axis. If this keyword is None (the default), then HOLE attempts to guess where the channel will be. The procedure assumes that the channel is reasonably symmetric. The guess will be either along the X axis (1,0,0), Y axis (0,1,0) or Z axis (0,0,1). If the structure is not aligned on one of these axis the results will clearly be approximate. If a guess is used then results should be carefully checked. sample (float, optional) – distance of sample points in Å. Specifies the distance between the planes used in the HOLE procedure. The default value should be reasonable for most purposes. However, if you wish to visualize a very tight constriction then specify a smaller value. This value determines how many points in the pore profile are calculated. end_radius (float, optional) – Radius in Å, which is considered to be the end of the pore. This keyword can be used to specify the radius above which the program regards a result as indicating that the end of the pore has been reached. This may need to be increased for large channels, or reduced for small channels. output_level (int, optional) – Determines the output of output in the outfile. For automated processing, this must be < 3. 0: Full text output, 1: All text output given except “run in progress” (i.e., detailed contemporary description of what HOLE is doing). 2: Ditto plus no graph type output - only leaving minimum radius and conductance calculations. 3: All text output other than input card mirroring and error messages turned off. ignore_residues (array_like, optional) – sequence of three-letter residues that are not taken into account during the calculation; wildcards are not supported. Note that all residues must have 3 letters. Pad with space on the right-hand side if necessary. prefix (str, optional) – Prefix for HOLE output files. write_input_files (bool, optional) – Whether to write out the input HOLE text as files. Files are called hole.inp.
results.sphpdbs

Array of sphpdb filenames

New in version 2.0.0.

Type: numpy.ndarray
results.outfiles

Arrau of output filenames

New in version 2.0.0.

Type: numpy.ndarray
results.profiles

Profiles generated by HOLE2. A dictionary of numpy.recarrays, indexed by frame.

New in version 2.0.0.

Type: dict
sphpdbs

Alias of results.sphpdbs

Deprecated since version 2.0.0: This will be removed in MDAnalysis 3.0.0. Please use results.sphpdbs instead.

Type: numpy.ndarray
outfiles

Alias of results.outfiles

Deprecated since version 2.0.0: This will be removed in MDAnalysis 3.0.0. Please use results.outfiles instead.

Type: numpy.ndarray
profiles

Alias of results.profiles

Deprecated since version 2.0.0: This will be removed in MDAnalysis 3.0.0. Please use results.profiles instead.

Type: dict
.. versionadded:: 1.0
.. versionchanged:: 2.0.0

sphpdbs, outfiles and profiles  are now stored in a :class:MDAnalysis.analysis.base.Results instance.

bin_radii(frames=None, bins=100, range=None)[source]

Collects the pore radii into bins by reaction coordinate.

Parameters: frames (int or iterable of ints, optional) – Profiles to include by frame. If None, includes all frames. bins (int or iterable of edges, optional) – If bins is an int, it defines the number of equal-width bins in the given range. If bins is a sequence, it defines a monotonically increasing array of bin edges, including the rightmost edge, allowing for non-uniform bin widths. range ((float, float), optional) – The lower and upper range of the bins. If not provided, range is simply (a.min(), a.max()), where a is the array of reaction coordinates. Values outside the range are ignored. The first element of the range must be less than or equal to the second. list of arrays of floats – List of radii present in each bin array of (float, float) – Edges of each bin
create_vmd_surface(filename='hole.vmd', dot_density=15, no_water_color='red', one_water_color='green', double_water_color='blue')[source]

Process HOLE output to create a smooth pore surface suitable for VMD.

Takes the sphpdb file for each frame and feeds it to sph_process and sos_triangle as described under Visualization of HOLE results.

Load the output file filename into VMD in Extensions > Tk Console

source hole.vmd


The level of detail is determined by dot_density. The surface will be colored by no_water_color, one_water_color, and double_water_color. You can change these in the Tk Console:

set no_water_color blue

Parameters: filename (str, optional) – file to write the pore surfaces to. dot_density (int, optional) – density of facets for generating a 3D pore representation. The number controls the density of dots that will be used. A sphere of dots is placed on each centre determined in the Monte Carlo procedure. The actual number of dots written is controlled by dot_density and the sample level of the original analysis. dot_density should be set between 5 (few dots per sphere) and 35 (many dots per sphere). no_water_color (str, optional) – Color of the surface where the pore radius is too tight for a water molecule. one_water_color (str, optional) – Color of the surface where the pore can fit one water molecule. double_water_color (str, optional) – Color of the surface where the radius is at least double the minimum radius for one water molecule. filename with the pore surfaces. str
delete_temporary_files()[source]

Delete temporary files

gather(frames=None, flat=False)[source]

Gather the fields of each profile recarray together.

Parameters: frames (int or iterable of ints, optional) – Profiles to include by frame. If None, includes all frames. flat (bool, optional) – Whether to flatten the list of field arrays into a single array. dictionary of fields dict
guess_cpoint()[source]

Guess a point inside the pore.

This method simply uses the center of geometry of the selection as a guess.

Returns: center of geometry of selected AtomGroup float
histogram_radii(aggregator=<function mean>, frames=None, bins=100, range=None)[source]

Histograms the pore radii into bins by reaction coordinate, aggregate the radii with an aggregator function, and returns the aggregated radii and bin edges.

Parameters: aggregator (callable, optional) – this function must take an iterable of floats and return a single value. frames (int or iterable of ints, optional) – Profiles to include by frame. If None, includes all frames. bins (int or iterable of edges, optional) – If bins is an int, it defines the number of equal-width bins in the given range. If bins is a sequence, it defines a monotonically increasing array of bin edges, including the rightmost edge, allowing for non-uniform bin widths. range ((float, float), optional) – The lower and upper range of the bins. If not provided, range is simply (a.min(), a.max()), where a is the array of reaction coordinates. Values outside the range are ignored. The first element of the range must be less than or equal to the second. array of floats – histogrammed, aggregate value of radii array of (float, float) – Edges of each bin
min_radius()[source]

Return the minimum radius over all profiles as a function of q

over_order_parameters(order_parameters, frames=None)[source]

Get HOLE profiles sorted over order parameters order_parameters.

Parameters: order_parameters (array-like or string) – Sequence or text file containing order parameters (float numbers) corresponding to the frames in the trajectory. Must be same length as trajectory. frames (array-like, optional) – Selected frames to return. If None, returns all of them. sorted dictionary of {order_parameter:profile} collections.OrderedDict
plot(frames=None, color=None, cmap='viridis', linestyle='-', y_shift=0.0, label=True, ax=None, legend_loc='best', **kwargs)[source]

Plot HOLE profiles $$R(\zeta)$$ in a 1D graph.

Lines are colored according to the specified color or drawn from the color map cmap. One line is plotted for each trajectory frame.

Parameters: frames (array-like, optional) – Frames to plot. If None, plots all of them. color (str or array-like, optional) – Color or colors for the plot. If None, colors are drawn from cmap. cmap (str, optional) – color map to make colors for the plot if color is not given. Names should be from the matplotlib.pyplot.cm module. linestyle (str or array-like, optional) – Line style for the plot. y_shift (float, optional) – displace each $$R(\zeta)$$ profile by y_shift in the $$y$$-direction for clearer visualization. label (bool or string, optional) – If False then no legend is displayed. ax (matplotlib.axes.Axes) – If no ax is supplied or set to None then the plot will be added to the current active axes. legend_loc (str, optional) – Location of the legend. kwargs (**kwargs) – All other kwargs are passed to matplotlib.pyplot.plot(). ax – Axes with the plot, either ax or the current axes. Axes
plot3D(frames=None, color=None, cmap='viridis', linestyle='-', ax=None, r_max=None, ylabel='Frames', **kwargs)[source]

Stacked 3D graph of profiles $$R(\zeta)$$.

Lines are colored according to the specified color or drawn from the color map cmap. One line is plotted for each trajectory frame.

Parameters: frames (array-like, optional) – Frames to plot. If None, plots all of them. color (str or array-like, optional) – Color or colors for the plot. If None, colors are drawn from cmap. cmap (str, optional) – color map to make colors for the plot if color is not given. Names should be from the matplotlib.pyplot.cm module. linestyle (str or array-like, optional) – Line style for the plot. r_max (float, optional) – only display radii up to r_max. If None, all radii are plotted. ax (matplotlib.axes.Axes) – If no ax is supplied or set to None then the plot will be added to the current active axes. ylabel (str, optional) – Y-axis label. **kwargs – All other kwargs are passed to matplotlib.pyplot.plot(). ax – Axes with the plot, either ax or the current axes. Axes3D
plot3D_order_parameters(order_parameters, frames=None, color=None, cmap='viridis', linestyle='-', ax=None, r_max=None, ylabel='Order parameter', **kwargs)[source]

Plot HOLE radii over order parameters as a 3D graph.

Lines are colored according to the specified color or drawn from the color map cmap. One line is plotted for each trajectory frame.

Parameters: order_parameters (array-like or string) – Sequence or text file containing order parameters(float numbers) corresponding to the frames in the trajectory. Must be same length as trajectory. frames (array-like, optional) – Frames to plot. If None, plots all of them. color (str or array-like, optional) – Color or colors for the plot. If None, colors are drawn from cmap. cmap (str, optional) – color map to make colors for the plot if color is not given. Names should be from the matplotlib.pyplot.cm module. linestyle (str or array-like, optional) – Line style for the plot. ax (: class: matplotlib.axes.Axes) – If no ax is supplied or set to None then the plot will be added to the current active axes. r_max (float, optional) – only display radii up to r_max. If None, all radii are plotted. ylabel (str, optional) – Y-axis label. **kwargs – All other kwargs are passed to: func: matplotlib.pyplot.plot. ax – Axes with the plot, either ax or the current axes. : class: ~mpl_toolkits.mplot3d.Axes3D
plot_mean_profile(bins=100, range=None, frames=None, color='blue', linestyle='-', ax=None, xlabel='Frame', fill_alpha=0.3, n_std=1, legend=True, legend_loc='best', **kwargs)[source]

Collects the pore radii into bins by reaction coordinate.

Parameters: frames (int or iterable of ints, optional) – Profiles to include by frame. If None, includes all frames. bins (int or iterable of edges, optional) – If bins is an int, it defines the number of equal-width bins in the given range. If bins is a sequence, it defines a monotonically increasing array of bin edges, including the rightmost edge, allowing for non-uniform bin widths. range ((float, float), optional) – The lower and upper range of the bins. If not provided, range is simply (a.min(), a.max()), where a is the array of reaction coordinates. Values outside the range are ignored. The first element of the range must be less than or equal to the second. color (str or array-like, optional) – Color for the plot. linestyle (str or array-like, optional) – Line style for the plot. ax (matplotlib.axes.Axes) – If no ax is supplied or set to None then the plot will be added to the current active axes. xlabel (str, optional) – X-axis label. fill_alpha (float, optional) – Opacity of filled standard deviation area n_std (int, optional) – Number of standard deviations from the mean to fill between. legend (bool, optional) – Whether to plot a legend. legend_loc (str, optional) – Location of legend. **kwargs – All other kwargs are passed to matplotlib.pyplot.plot(). ax – Axes with the plot, either ax or the current axes. Axes
plot_order_parameters(order_parameters, aggregator=<built-in function min>, frames=None, color='blue', linestyle='-', ax=None, ylabel='Minimum HOLE pore radius $r$ ($\\AA$)', xlabel='Order parameter', **kwargs)[source]

Plot HOLE radii over order parameters. This function needs an aggregator function to reduce the radius array to a single value, e.g. min, max, or np.mean.

Parameters: order_parameters (array-like or string) – Sequence or text file containing order parameters (float numbers) corresponding to the frames in the trajectory. Must be same length as trajectory. aggregator (callable, optional) – Function applied to the radius array of each profile to reduce it to one representative value. frames (array-like, optional) – Frames to plot. If None, plots all of them. color (str or array-like, optional) – Color for the plot. linestyle (str or array-like, optional) – Line style for the plot. ax (matplotlib.axes.Axes) – If no ax is supplied or set to None then the plot will be added to the current active axes. xlabel (str, optional) – X-axis label. ylabel (str, optional) – Y-axis label. **kwargs – All other kwargs are passed to matplotlib.pyplot.plot(). ax – Axes with the plot, either ax or the current axes. Axes
run(start=None, stop=None, step=None, verbose=None, random_seed=None)[source]

Perform the calculation

Parameters: start (int, optional) – start frame of analysis stop (int, optional) – stop frame of analysis step (int, optional) – number of frames to skip between each analysed frame verbose (bool, optional) – Turn on verbosity random_seed (int, optional) – integer number to start the random number generator. By default, hole will use the time of the day. For reproducible runs (e.g., for testing) set random_seed to an integer.
MDAnalysis.analysis.hole2.hole.hole(pdbfile, infile_text=None, infile=None, outfile='hole.out', sphpdb_file='hole.sph', vdwradii_file=None, executable='hole', tmpdir='.', sample=0.2, end_radius=22.0, cpoint=None, cvect=None, random_seed=None, ignore_residues=['SOL', 'WAT', 'TIP', 'HOH', 'K ', 'NA ', 'CL '], output_level=0, dcd=None, dcd_iniskip=0, dcd_step=1, keep_files=True)[source]

Run hole on a single frame or a DCD trajectory.

hole is part of the HOLE suite of programs. It is used to analyze channels and cavities in proteins, especially ion channels.

Only a subset of all HOLE control parameters is supported and can be set with keyword arguments.

Parameters: pdbfile (str) – The filename is used as input for HOLE in the “COORD” card of the input file. It specifies the name of a PDB coordinate file to be used. This must be in Brookhaven protein databank format or something closely approximating this. Both ATOM and HETATM records are read. infile_text (str, optional) – HOLE input text or template. If set to None, the function will create the input text from the other parameters. infile (str, optional) – File to write the HOLE input text for later inspection. If set to None, the input text is not written out. outfile (str, optional) – file name of the file collecting HOLE’s output (which can be parsed using collect_hole(outfile)(). sphpdb_file (str, optional) – path to the HOLE sph file, a PDB-like file containing the coordinates of the pore centers. The coordinates are set to the sphere centres and the occupancies are the sphere radii. All centres are assigned the atom name QSS and residue name SPH and the residue number is set to the storage number of the centre. In VMD, sph objects are best displayed as “Points”. Displaying .sph objects rather than rendered or dot surfaces can be useful to analyze the distance of particular atoms from the sphere-centre line. .sph files can be used to produce molecular graphical output from a hole run, by using the sph_process program to read the .sph file. vdwradii_file (str, optional) – path to the file specifying van der Waals radii for each atom. If set to None, then a set of default radii, SIMPLE2_RAD, is used (an extension of simple.rad from the HOLE distribution). executable (str, optional) – Path to the hole executable. (e.g. ~/hole2/exe/hole). If hole is found on the PATH, then the bare executable name is sufficient. tmpdir (str, optional) – The temporary directory that files can be symlinked to, to shorten the path name. HOLE can only read filenames up to a certain length. sample (float, optional) – distance of sample points in Å. Specifies the distance between the planes used in the HOLE procedure. The default value should be reasonable for most purposes. However, if you wish to visualize a very tight constriction then specify a smaller value. This value determines how many points in the pore profile are calculated. end_radius (float, optional) – Radius in Å, which is considered to be the end of the pore. This keyword can be used to specify the radius above which the program regards a result as indicating that the end of the pore has been reached. This may need to be increased for large channels, or reduced for small channels. cpoint (array_like, 'center_of_geometry' or None, optional) – coordinates of a point inside the pore, e.g. [12.3, 0.7, 18.55]. If set to None (the default) then HOLE’s own search algorithm is used. cpoint specifies a point which lies within the channel. For simple channels (e.g. gramicidin), results do not show great sensitivity to the exact point taken. An easy way to produce an initial point is to use molecular graphics to find two atoms which lie either side of the pore and to average their coordinates. Or if the channel structure contains water molecules or counter ions then take the coordinates of one of these (and use the ignore_residues keyword to ignore them in the pore radius calculation). If this card is not specified, then HOLE (from version 2.2) attempts to guess where the channel will be. The procedure assumes the channel is reasonably symmetric. The initial guess on cpoint will be the centroid of all alpha carbon atoms (name ‘CA’ in pdb file). This is then refined by a crude grid search up to 5 Å from the original position. This procedure works most of the time but is far from infallible — results should be carefully checked (with molecular graphics) if it is used. cvect (array_like, optional) – Search direction, should be parallel to the pore axis, e.g. [0,0,1] for the z-axis. If this keyword is None (the default), then HOLE attempts to guess where the channel will be. The procedure assumes that the channel is reasonably symmetric. The guess will be either along the X axis (1,0,0), Y axis (0,1,0) or Z axis (0,0,1). If the structure is not aligned on one of these axis the results will clearly be approximate. If a guess is used then results should be carefully checked. random_seed (int, optional) – integer number to start the random number generator. By default, hole will use the time of the day. For reproducible runs (e.g., for testing) set random_seed to an integer. ignore_residues (array_like, optional) – sequence of three-letter residues that are not taken into account during the calculation; wildcards are not supported. Note that all residues must have 3 letters. Pad with space on the right-hand side if necessary. output_level (int, optional) – Determines the output of output in the outfile. For automated processing, this must be < 3. 0: Full text output, 1: All text output given except “run in progress” (i.e., detailed contemporary description of what HOLE is doing). 2: Ditto plus no graph type output - only leaving minimum radius and conductance calculations. 3: All text output other than input card mirroring and error messages turned off. dcd (str, optional) – File name of CHARMM-style DCD trajectory (must be supplied together with a matching PDB file filename) and then HOLE runs its analysis on each frame. HOLE can not read DCD trajectories written by MDAnalysis, which are NAMD-style (see Notes). Note that structural parameters determined for each individual structure are written in a tagged format so that it is possible to extract the information from the text output file using a grep command. The reading of the file can be controlled by the dcd_step keyword and/or setting dcd_iniskip to the number of frames to be skipped initially. dcd_step (int, optional) – step size for going through the trajectory (skips dcd_step-1 frames). keep_files (bool, optional) – Whether to keep the HOLE output files and possible temporary symlinks after running the function. A dictionary of numpy.recarrays, indexed by frame. dict

Notes

• HOLE is very picky and does not read all DCD-like formats [1]. If in doubt, look into the outfile for error diagnostics.

New in version 1.0.

## 4.4.1.2. Utility functions and templates¶

### 4.4.1.2.1. HOLE Analysis — MDAnalysis.analysis.hole2.helper¶

Author: Lily Wang 2020 GNU Public License v3

New in version 1.0.

Helper functions used in MDAnalysis.analysis.hole2.hole

MDAnalysis.analysis.hole2.utils.check_and_fix_long_filename(filename, tmpdir='.', max_length=70, make_symlink=True)[source]

Return a file name suitable for HOLE.

HOLE is limited to filenames <= max_length. This method

1. returns filename if HOLE can process it
2. returns a relative path (see os.path.relpath()) if that shortens the
path sufficiently
3. creates a symlink to filename (os.symlink()) in a safe temporary
directory and returns the path of the symlink.
Parameters: filename (str) – file name to be processed tmpdir (str, optional) – By default the temporary directory is created inside the current directory in order to keep that path name short. This can be changed with the tmpdir keyword (e.g. one can use “/tmp”). The default is the current directory os.path.curdir. path to the file that has a length less than max_length str RuntimeError – If none of the tricks for filename shortening worked. In this case, manually rename the file or recompile your version of HOLE.
MDAnalysis.analysis.hole2.utils.collect_hole(outfile='hole.out')[source]

Collect data from HOLE output

Parameters: outfile (str, optional) – HOLE output file to read. Default: ‘hole.out’ Dictionary of HOLE profiles as record arrays dict
MDAnalysis.analysis.hole2.utils.create_vmd_surface(sphpdb='hole.sph', filename=None, sph_process='sph_process', sos_triangle='sos_triangle', dot_density=15)[source]

Create VMD surface file from sphpdb file.

Parameters: sphpdb (str, optional) – sphpdb file to read. Default: ‘hole.sph’ filename (str, optional) – output VMD surface file. If None, a temporary file is generated. Default: None sph_process (str, optional) – Executable for sph_process program. Default: ‘sph_process’ sos_triangle (str, optional) – Executable for sos_triangle program. Default: ‘sos_triangle’ dot_density (int, optional) – density of facets for generating a 3D pore representation. The number controls the density of dots that will be used. A sphere of dots is placed on each centre determined in the Monte Carlo procedure. The actual number of dots written is controlled by dot_density and the sample level of the original analysis. dot_density should be set between 5 (few dots per sphere) and 35 (many dots per sphere). Default: 15 the output filename for the VMD surface str
MDAnalysis.analysis.hole2.utils.run_hole(outfile, infile_text, executable)[source]

Run the HOLE program.

Parameters: outfile (str) – Output file name infile_text (str) – HOLE input text (typically generated by set_up_hole_input()) executable (str) – HOLE executable Output file name str
MDAnalysis.analysis.hole2.utils.write_simplerad2(filename='simple2.rad')[source]

Write the built-in radii in SIMPLE2_RAD to filename.

Does nothing if filename already exists.

Parameters: filename (str, optional) – output file name; the default is “simple2.rad” filename – returns the name of the data file str

### 4.4.1.2.2. HOLE Analysis — MDAnalysis.analysis.hole2.templates¶

Author: Lily Wang 2020 GNU Public License v3

New in version 1.0.

Templates used in MDAnalysis.analysis.hole2.hole

MDAnalysis.analysis.hole2.templates.SIMPLE2_RAD = '\nremark: Time-stamp: <2005-11-21 13:57:55 oliver> [OB]\nremark: van der Waals radii: AMBER united atom\nremark: from Weiner et al. (1984), JACS, vol 106 pp765-768\nremark: Simple - Only use one value for each element C O H etc.\nremark: van der Waals radii\nremark: general last\nVDWR C??? ??? 1.85\nVDWR O??? ??? 1.65\nVDWR S??? ??? 2.00\nVDWR N??? ??? 1.75\nVDWR H??? ??? 1.00\nVDWR H? ??? 1.00\nVDWR P??? ??? 2.10\nremark: ASN, GLN polar H (odd names for these atoms in xplor)\nVDWR E2? GLN 1.00\nVDWR D2? ASN 1.00\nremark: amber lone pairs on sulphurs\nVDWR LP?? ??? 0.00\nremark: for some funny reason it wants radius for K even though\nremark: it is on the exclude list\nremark: Use Pauling hydration radius (Hille 2001) [OB]\nVDWR K? ??? 1.33\nVDWR NA? ??? 0.95\nVDWR CL? ??? 1.81\nremark: funny hydrogens in gA structure [OB]\nVDWR 1H? ??? 1.00\nVDWR 2H? ??? 1.00\nVDWR 3H? ??? 1.00\nremark: need bond rad for molqpt option\nBOND C??? 0.85\nBOND N??? 0.75\nBOND O??? 0.7\nBOND S??? 1.1\nBOND H??? 0.5\nBOND P??? 1.0\nBOND ???? 0.85\n'

van der Waals radii are AMBER united atom from Weiner et al. (1984), JACS, vol 106 pp765-768. Simple - Only use one value for each element C O H etc. Added radii for K+, NA+, CL- (Pauling hydration radius from Hille 2002). The data file can be written with the convenience function write_simplerad2().

Type: Built-in HOLE radii (based on simple.rad from the HOLE distribution)